The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! I made these typologies of #VikingWeapons in for the book 'Vikinger i krig' ( 'Vikings At War'). They are primarily based upon the work of Jan.
Onleihe Koblenz. Eric Brighteyes (A Novel of Viking Age Iceland)In the case of Viking Age England, local English kings were unable to monopolize violence and defend their realms against competing Viking. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Many translated example sentences containing "Viking Age" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
Viking Age Who Were the Vikings? VideoThe Viking Age Explained Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures Book 14) (English Edition) eBook: Somerville, Angus A., McDonald. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures) | Somerville, Angus A., McDonald, R. Andrew | ISBN. Examinations of Viking Age burials suggests that women lived longer, and nearly all well past the age of 35, as compared to earlier times. Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth. The Viking Age had begun. Historians use the term the Viking Age to describe the turbulent expansion of the Scandinavian people into Europe and Russia. Beginning in A.D. with the Lindisfarne raid, Norwegians, Swedes and Danes set to raiding. The Viking Age. Danish prehistory culminated in the Viking Age, the period from until AD. During the Viking Age the first kings appeared, who ruled an area roughly corresponding to present-day Denmark. On King Harald Bluetooth’s rune stone at Jelling, Denmark is named for the first time around AD. At the end of the Viking Age. Find the latest Minnesota Vikings news, rumors, trades, free agency updates and more from the insider fans and analysts at the Viking Age. The site appears to have originated as a cemetery in the Iron Age that was expanded in the Viking Age, according to the paper. Image A map of the ship burial and site next to the images from.
Interacting with many cultures and settling in many geographic regions, the Norse were more cosmopolitan than they receive credit for.
The visual world was of great importance to the Norse. Significant resources were devoted to the creation of astonishing objects and the acquisition of foreign goods through plunder and trade alike , and because of their highly mobile endeavors, Norse-made and Norse-influenced objects have been found across a wide geographic expanse.
An array of sophisticated, meticulously crafted objects survive. Fine imported materials were used, but local materials were also expertly handled by highly skilled craftspeople.
Woodworking, for example, was an essential skill, and detailed wood carvings have been uncovered and restored.
This material is susceptible to rot and fire, and so we can conclude that what survives today is a small fraction of the woodwork that once existed. Objects made from more tenacious materials—like metal and stone—comprise the majority of what art historians have left to examine.
Metal jewelry, storage vessels, and other utilitarian objects have been uncovered from burials and hoards. Ivory and bone carvings have also been found, as have a limited number of precious textiles and stone carvings.
Many objects served practical and symbolic purposes and their complex decorative patterns can be a challenge to untangle. Highly-stylized motifs weave around and flow into one another, so that following a single form from one end to the other can be difficult—if there are end points at all.
Imagery was created to communicate ideas about social relations, religious beliefs, and to recall a mythic past. Although many objects served pagan intentions, Christian themes began to intermingle with them as new ideas filtered into the region.
Viking art is visually distinct from contemporaneous cultures as traded objects and integrated customs demonstrate , and represents a unique way of thinking about the world.
The animal motifs that frequently embellished objects are actually a continuation of artistic traditions from previous periods. The ribbon-animal was typically pictured as a highly abstracted creature with an elongated body and simplified features, appearing individually and in pairs.
In contrast, the gripping beast—a fantastical creature with clearly defined limbs—was anchored to the borders of designs and surrounding creatures.
Other animal motifs developed throughout the period, and human figures were also present. These elements, which are thought to have had particular assigned meanings, are central to the categorization of Viking Age art styles.
The Oseberg style was popular throughout mainland Scandinavia. Some of the most remarkable wood carving from the Viking Age was created in this style.
Featuring carvings of the ribbon-animal and gripping-beast motifs in fluid combinations on its prow, it served as an elite funerary vessel for two women.
The Oseberg style shows a strong interplay between zoomorphic and geometric patterns that continues artistic traditions predating the Viking Age.
In Oseberg art, animal motifs—which included birds, human faces sometimes thought to be masks such as we see on the Oseberg burial cart , and the gripping beast—appear short and stocky, nearly equal in size, have rounded eyes, and tendril-like limbs.
These schematic figures are situated within fields that divide surfaces into clear segments and emphasize the balance and organization of images.
With mixtures of high- and low-relief carvings flooding their surfaces in tightly interlacing ornament, very little background is visible. The Oseberg ship burial included carved wooden posts, decorated sleds , and an oak wagon that may have been made by master craftsmen from a nearby workshop.
Although the purpose of these objects remain unclear, their detailed carvings demonstrate advanced woodworking skills.
Also included was a set of tapestries that, despite their poor condition, are believed to depict battle scenes and a religious procession.
They illustrate many objects found in the grave, indicating that material goods were important for performing customs in life and in death.
Overlapping with the Oseberg style is the Borre style, which was also popular on the mainland. However, unlike the Oseberg style, Borre artistic conventions spread to the British Isles and the Baltic region as the Norsemen traveled both East and West.
A few Swedes were present. The merging of the Scandinavian and native elements contributed to the creation of one of the most powerful feudal states of Western Europe.
The naval ability of the Normans would allow them to conquer England and southern Italy , and play a key role in the Crusades.
After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire River, they could strike as far as northern Spain. In some of their raids they were crushed either by Kingdom of Asturias or Emirate armies.
These Vikings were Hispanised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus. In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.
After a siege, the Vikings conquered Lisbon at the time, the city was under Muslim rule and known as Al-Ushbuna. They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants.
Another raid was attempted in , without success. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.
The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.
This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves.
Little documentary evidence was available until later, when Christian sources began to contribute. As historians and archaeologists have developed more resources to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has become apparent.
The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle.
They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly before a counter-offensive could be launched.
Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers.
The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes.
This led to a lesser quality of ships. While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.
When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets. While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents.
When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.
The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.
A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.
In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Changes in shipbuilding in the rest of Europe led to the demise of the longship for military purposes.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.
The nautical achievements of the Vikings were exceptional. For instance, they made distance tables for sea voyages that were remarkably precise.
The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope. It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.
An archaeological find in Sweden consists of a bone fragment fixated with in-operated material; the piece is as yet undated.
These bones might be the remains of a trader from the Middle East. This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account?
Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Scandinavian Scotland. Main article: Kingdom of the Isles. Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages.
Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Viking ship , Viking Age arms and armour. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , p.
Northern Shores: a history of the Baltic Sea and its peoples. London: John Murray. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.
A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.
Online Medieval and Classical Library. Retrieved 7 June Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1, from Denmark and some from Norway.
Byzantine coins have been found almost exclusively in Gotland, some See Arkeologi i Norden 2. Stockholm See also Gardell, Carl Johan: Gotlands historia i fickformat , ISBN Bis ins Eventually, opposing armies saw the advantages of this weapon, and they began arming themselves with similar armament the Dane axe also came to be known as the English long axe.
The Dane axe was designed to be wielded with two hands, and its head was forged from thin but strong metal, resulting in a surprisingly lightweight weapon that could be swung with a great amount of control.
Still, it was perfectly capable of delivering a fatal wound with a single blow from its razor-sharp edge. First and foremost, with its elongated edge that dropped down well below the butt or poll, a bearded axe presented a longer cutting edge as measured from toe to heel.
In the hands of a capable Viking warrior it could also be wielded single-handed , it could slice, slash, and chop with deadly force.
The unique beard design also served a defensive purpose. As the most affordable and functional implement around, virtually every Viking male except for slaves owned an axe.
Aside from being a highly effective weapon for the Viking style of combat, axes served other purposes that were equally vital to the Viking way of life:.
Therefore, a good, sharp axe was a necessity of life for daily activities like felling trees and chopping wood for building materials and to burn as fuel for cooking and warmth.
Axes could also be used to clear land for farming or for raising livestock. As any experienced outdoorsman can attest, a good, sharp axe makes living a rugged lifestyle much easier.
Native trees like oak and pine were split along the grain with axes and wedges to create wooden planks that were joined in overlapping fashion to produce the signature clinker design that gave Viking vessels their unique strength and flexibility.
Whether it was used for splitting logs or striking down enemy forces, the axe was an instrumental part of Norse expansion during the Viking Age.
The Vikings of Scandinavia and the Japanese samurai were the most formidable fighting forces in their respective parts of the globe.
Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.
In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.
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The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself. Beginning around A.
While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.
Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings. When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A.
No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.
Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his